Udukumbura

Spatial distribution of ecosystems in Udukumbura BFN project site
Spatial distribution of ecosystems in Udukumbura landscape
Average extent of land area owned by households in Udukumbura BFN project site.

Village

Size of land extent (ac) and their ownership status

Homegarden

Crop cultivation area

Chena lands

Padupola

2.08 ± 0.21#

1.63 ± 0.32#

1.81 ± 0.38+

Udukumbura

1.98 ± 0.17*

1.53 ± 0.27*

1.68 ± 0.24+

Total

1.52 ± 0.10

1.55 ± 0.20

1.70 ± 0.20


Note: # over 90% owner cultivated and the balance is either rented or government owned; * 100% owner cultivated, + over 38% owner cultivated and the balance is rented or Government owned.

Distribution of different ecosystems in Udukumbura BFN project site

Land use type

Extent

Area (ha)

Percentage

Natural forests

263.28

42.5

Homegardens

151.63

24.5

Grasslands

79.34

12.8

Annual crop (paddy)

42.91

6.9

Rock outcrop

33.19

5.4

Shrubs

27.99

4.5

Chena lands

15.43

2.5

Water streams

4.3

0.7

Pinus plantation

1.03

0.2

Total

619.10

100

Twelve food groups used for calculating the House Hold Diet Diversity with specific food items for Udukumbura


FOOD GROUPS

FOOD ITEMS

1. Cereals

Rice, bread, wheat, millet, maize and noodles.

2. White tubers and roots

White potatoes and white cassava.

3. Vegetables

Jack fruit, bread fruit, sweet potato (orange inside), green leafy vegetables (e.g. Ceylon spinach), other vegetables (e.g. tomato, onion, eggplant) and vegetable curry dishes.

4. Fruits

Coconut, apple, belli and 100% fruit juices containing fruits like mango, papaya, banana, etc.

5. Meat

Beef and chicken.

6. Eggs

Eggs from chicken.

7. Fish and other seafood

Fresh fish, dried fish, sprats, Maledive fish and canned fish.

8. Legumes, nuts and seeds

Chickpea, cowpea, green gram, soy bean and dhalh.

9. Milk and milk products

Fresh milk, cheese, yogurt, curd and milk powder.

10. Oils and fats

Coconut oil, other edible oils like palm oil and butter.

11. Sweets

Sugar, juggery, treacle, sweetened soda (e.g. Kola Kenda), sweetened fruit drinks, jam, ice cream, biscuits, cake and traditional sweets (e.g. Iskirinne).

12. Spices, condiments and beverages

Spices, coffee, tea and alcoholic beverages (e.g. toddy (palm-wine).

Diet Diversity of households in Udukumbura






Different developmental stages of Kandyan homegardens in Udukumbura BFN project site.
Species area curve for annuals plant species of Kandyan homegardens in Udukumbura BFN project site.
Domination of pepper cultivation in home gardens of Udukumbura
Annual crop agro-ecosystem with terraced paddy cultivation
Socioeconomic characteristics of the study population in Udakumbura
Undernutrition in Pre-school Children at Udakumbura and National Level
Distribution of primary school children based on underweight
Distribution of primary school children based on stunting
Distribution of primary school children based on thinness
Distribution of Adolescent School Children based on Stunting
Distribution of Adolescent School Children based on Thinness
Nutritional Status of Adults using International and Asian BMI cut-off values.

Based on International cut-off values

Nutrition category

Male (n=94)

Female (n=121)

No.

%

No.

%

Normal (BMI 18.5-24.9)

64

68.1

81

66.9

Underweight (BMI <18.5)

26

27.7

30

24.8

Overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9)

3

3.2

9

7.4

Obese (BMI ≥30)

1

1.1

1

0.8

Based on Asian cut-off values

Nutrition category

Male (n=94)

Female (n=121)

No.

%

No.

%

Normal (BMI 18.5-22.9)

57

60.6

64

52.9

Underweight (BMI <18.5)

26

27.7

30

24.8

Overweight (BMI 23.0-27.4)

9

9.6

19

15.7

Obese (BMI ≥27.5)

2

2.1

8

6.6

Dietary diversity of households in Udakumbura (n=70)

Food groups

No. of households

Percentage

Cereals

70

100

Starchy roots/tubers

11

15.7

Vegetables

61

87.1

Fruits

14

20.0

Meat

0

0

Eggs

1

1.4

Fish/dried fish

19

27.1

beans/lentils

45

64.3

cheese/yoghurt/milk

1

1.4

oil/fat

70

100

sugar/jaggary/honey

66

94.3

green leafy vegetables

25

35.7

Food Security Status based on Modified USDA Food Security Survey Module

Food groups

No. of households

Percentage

Cereals

70

100

Starchy roots/tubers

11

15.7

Vegetables

61

87.1

Fruits

14

20.0

Meat

0

0

Eggs

1

1.4

Fish/dried fish

19

27.1

beans/lentils

45

64.3

cheese/yoghurt/milk

1

1.4

oil/fat

70

100

sugar/jaggary/honey

66

94.3

green leafy vegetables

25

35.7

Food Insecurity at Udakumbura based on Food Consumption and Food Access


 

 

Poor

 

Borderline

 

Adequate

Food access

 

 

Poor

Severely food insecure

0%

Severely food insecure

3%

Moderately food insecure

11.2%

 

 

Average

Severely food insecure

0%

Moderately food insecure

29.3%

Food secure

41.5%

 

 

Good

Moderately food insecure

0%

Food secure

5%

Food secure

10%

Food Security at Udakumbura compared to National Level